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3D animation Project Course Assessment

30 Jun
  1. On the front page Draw a mind map/visual presentation of your production workflow/pipeline (in chronoligical order).
  2. Analyse your development as a 3D artist. How did you meet your goals and ambitions? What went well? What would you do differently now?
  3. Explain in your own words:
    1. Parenting
    2. UVs
    3. IK
    4. Tag
    5. Polygon Normal
  4. What does a good topology mean in a model?
  5. What is a purpose of Subdivision Surface?
  6. How is a texture applied on an object (what does a computer software do/method it uses)
  7. How do you manipulate the placement of a texture on a surface?
  8. How do you attach an object to a curve and how do you animate it?
  9. How would you animate facial expressions?
  10. Any last words?
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Things I’ve learned 2017

28 Jun

When you start in 3d it is not always smooth sailing. Part of the learning process involves a lot of trial and error and it is not uncommon to have to do some things again (and again and again…). Important thing is to learn from those mistakes. What kind of problems did you encounter and how did you solve them? What have you learned during this process? What would you do differently if you would do the same thing again?

Add a comment down below.

General lighting tips

16 Feb

Choosing an Appropriate Lighting

It is important to make conscious decisions about emotions and design ahead of time , so that lighting is chosen and edited to enhance the overall goals for the scene. Here’s a partial checklist:

  1. What is the mood of the scene and what overall brightness (intensity slider) is appropriate? Which type of light will best fit the scene’s sense of time and place?
  2. How do multiple lights in a multiple light arrangement relate to each other in intensity and contrast? How will this ratio affect modelling and shadows?
  3. Should light come from one source for a hard edged, dramatic look or have multiple points of origin for a softer, more diffused feel?
  4. How rapidly will the intensity of the light fall off?
  5. Will light travel in one direction and stop or bounce from surface to surface?
  6. What colour is the light? Should the colour convey a specific mood? Can the warmth or coolness of lights be used to articulate space or establish time of the day?
  7. What kind of shadows are appropriate for the mood of the scene?
  8. Will the light be animated to move, flicker, surge, or changein intensity or colour over time? Will the light have shadow patterns moving through it?
  9. Is the light visible? Does it honor the mass of objects in its path? Is it clean or is it filled with dust?

General Tips for Lighting

  1. Name lights by the function they are performing in the scene. Names like 70 percent Main, 40 percent Fill, Backlight etc. say so much more than light1 and light2.
  2. Set up lighting in regard to the active camera.
  3. Shift-click to select multiple lights for simultaneous editing.
  4. Use Gouraud shading for feedback on how the lights are affecting the scene.
  5. Use the gray visibility switches to turn the lights on one at the time to see the effect each light is having on the model.
  6. Model for lighting. Sharp corners have no surface to catch light. Create fillets, roundings and bevels on your models to show off the highlights.
  7. If the scene calls for multiple lights, check the No Illumination check box for most of them so the dominant light still comes from one direction. Not only will too many radiating lights quickly overexpose the scene, but light from too many directions can be visually chaotic. Set up a strong basic structure of light and shadow, and then add puffs of visible colour that add interest but contribute no illumination to the scene. Think of it as painting with light.
  8. Turn off textures temporarily to see lighting effects more accurately.

3-point-lighting

15 Feb

3-POINT-LIGHTING-EXPLAINED

3-POINT LIGHTING IN C4D

1. KEY light – päävalo

  • Main light source, the brightest light source in the environment.
  • Defines the main direction of the light in the scene.
  • When designing the lighting setup, the most important aspect to consider is the angle in which the light illuminates the subject. The key light is most often situated diagonally up and to the side of the subject, about 15-45 degrees to the side and 15-45 degrees up from the camera position. There is an exception in the situation that subject’s profile is lit. Then the light source needs to be situated that way that it illuminates the whole subject.
  • If the key light is too close to the subject, the illusion of the depth suffers. When the light is too far away, the subject might not be fully illuminated.
  • When lighting the face, consider the nose as a kind of solar watch, where the shadow of the nose acts as an indicator of the light. Normally the shadow of the nose points to the direction of the mouth. This is how we are used to seeing people.
    • Light too far to the side: nose shadow is pointing more towards the cheek and it looks disturbing.
    • Light too low: the most disturbing light position, which results in ghost like, greepy result. Can be used as an effect.
    • Light too far up: The resulting shadows block the eyes and the subject will look like a racoon. Not very pleasing.
    • Light too far back: dramatic effect, where the subject will look more like a silhouette.
  • Tilan pääasiallinen valonlähde, ympäristön kirkkain valo.
  • Määrittelee valaisun pääasiallisen suunnan.
  • Kohteen valaisussa tärkein asia on päättää, missä kulmassa päävalo saavuttaa kohteen. Päävalo sijoitetaan useimmiten yläviistoon, hieman kohteesta sivulle, n. 15-45 astetta sivuun ja 15-45 astetta ylös kamerasta. Poikkeuksena tilanne, jossa kohdetta kuvataan profiilissa, jolloin valoa käännetään niin, että se valaisee kohteen kokonaan.
  • Jos päävalo on liian lähellä kohdetta, kohteen muoto menettää syvyyttä. Jos taas valo on liian kaukana, saattaa kohde jäädä osittain valoittamatta.
  • Jos valaiset kasvoja, voit ajatella nenää eräänlaisena aurinkokellona. Nenän varjo osoittaa normaalitilanteessa suuta kohti valon tullessa yläsuunnasta. Näin olemme tottuneet näkemään ihmisiä.
    • Valo tulee liikaa sivulta: Kun päävalo on sijoitettu liian sivuun ja tilanne näyttää usein häiritsevältä.Nenän varjo osoittaa sivulle poskea kohti.
    • Valo tulee liikaa alhaalta: Erityisen kummalliselta valo näyttää, jos se tulee alhaaltapäin. Tätä voidaan käyttää efektinä, jos halutaan saavuttaa aavemainen, pelottava tunnelma. Käytä harkiten.
    • Valo tulee liikaa ylhäältä: Silmät jäävät piiloon varjoihin. Pesukarhusilmät eivät näytä erityisen houkuttelevilta.
    • Valo tulee liikaa takaapäin: Dramaattinen efekti, jolla kohde saadaan vaikuttamaan lähes silhuetilta.

2. FILL light – täytevalo

  • In real world fill light comes naturally as the light reflects to the environment from the surface. If the surface is rendered without GI or radiosity, the digital lighting can’t imitate that property of the natural lighting. The light does not reflect to its surraundings.
  • To imitate this reflective aspect of the light, it is common to use a light source at the opposite side of the key light.
  • When the key light illuminates the scene from up and side of left side of the main subject, the fill light needs to be situated on the right side that way that it reaches the subject from the lower angle. If the lights reach each other in the middle, all of the subject is illuminated. The fill light should not be an exact mirror of the key light. That would make the lighting seem unnatural.
  • If there is another light source (an object such as a lamp) in a scene, the fill light should be placed to illuminate from that direction.
  • The fill light has got multiple uses: it acts as a reflective light, as a light source or as a softening light.
  • Even when the GI or radiosity is used, can fill light be used to make subtle changes to the lighting.
  • If multiple light sources are used, be careful that their illumination intensity is not more than the intensity of the key light.

 

  • Oikeassa maailmassa täytevalo tulee usein luonnollisesti valon heijastuessa pinnoista. Rendattaessa ilman global illumination tai radiosity metodeita, ei digitaalinen valaisu imitoi tätä ominaisuutta. Valo ei heijastu pinnoista ympäristöönsä.
  • Imitoidakseen tätä valon heijastumaa, täytyy virtuaalivalaistuksessa usein sijoittaa valonlähde päävalon vastakkaiselle puolelle. Valon paikan ei tarvitse olla täysin vastaan. Usein täytevalo sijoitetaan kohteen eteen päävalon vastakkaiselle puolelle.
  • Päävalon tullessa ylhäältä vasemmalta, tulisi täytevalon tulla alemmasta kulmasta oikealta. Jos valojen reitit kohtaavat keskellä, se varmistaa, ettei mikään osa kohteesta jää varjoon. Varmista, ettei valo tule täysin symmetrisesti peilikuvaksi. Se olisi luonnotonta.
  • Jos tilassa on toinen valonlähde, esimerkiksi lamppu, sijoita täytevalo siten, että se tulee tästä suunnasta.
  • Täytevalolla voi olla monia tehtäviä, kuten toimia heijastuvana valona, valonlähteenä tai pehmentävänä valona.
  • Käytettäessä global illumination tai radiosity rendausta, tietokone laskee valon heijastukset ja pyrkii luonnonmukaiseen lopputulokseen. Myös tällöin voidaan täytevalolla hienosäätää valaistusta tarvittaessa.
  • Jos käytät useampia täytevaloja, ole tarkkana, ettei niiden yhteisvalon määrä ylitä täytevalon määrää. (key : fill+fill)

3. BACKLIGHT – taustavalo

  • Separates the subject from the background. It creates the sense of depth in the scene.
  • Not necessary. To be used when needed. it is a style choice.
  • Backlight can be brighter than the key light if situation needs it to be.
  • Ideally the backlight is not situated directly at the back of the subject, but a little higher opposite the camera.
  • Multiple light sources are often needed to light the whole edge of the subject.

 

  •  Erottaa kohteen taustastaan.
  • Ei aina välttämätön, tyylivalinta
  • Taustavalo voi olla kirkas, jopa kirkkaampi kuin päävalo
  • Jotta taustavalon vaikutus olisi näkyvä, sen ei tule olla täysin kohteen takana, vaan hieman ylempänä, kameraa vastapäätä’
  • Taustavaloja täytyy usein käyttää useampia, jotta kohteen reunat valaistuvat koko matkalta.

Key to fill ratio – päävalon ja täytevalon suhde

  • Fill light intensity should be considerably lower that the key light intensity, but on the other hand it needs to be strong enough to light the subject sufficiently.
    • Low ratio: 2:1 (key light intensity is twice the fill light intensity) – there is a lot of reflective light and a low contrast between the shadows and the highlights.
    • Mid ratio: 4:1
    • High ratio: 8:1 – Very little reflective light, strong contrast between the light and shadow.
  • Täytevalon tulisi olla huomattavasti heikompi kuin päävalon, mutta kuitenkin tarpeeksi voimakas, jotta kohde valaistuu tarpeeksi. Päävalon ja täytevalon suhteella ilmaistaan valojen luomaa kontrastia.
    • Alhainen suhde: 2:1 (päävalo on kaksi kertaa täytevaloa kirkkaampi) – Paljon heijastevaloa, vähäinen kontrasti valo- ja varjoalueiden välillä
    • Keskiarvoinen suhde: 4:1
    • Korkea suhde: 8:1 – Vähän heijastevaloa, korkea kontrasti valo- ja varjoalueiden välillä

Alhainen suhde

  • Used indoors, where there are many light and reflective surfaces.
  • Cloudy day or a snowy landscape, which lacks in contrast.
  • Preferred light ratio for comedies and children’s programs.
  • Käytetään sisätiloissa, joissa on paljon valkoisia tai heijastavia pintoja
  • Pilvisenä päivänä tai lumisessa maisemassa valon erot jäävät heikommiksi
  • Komedioissa ja lastenohjelmissa käytetään tälläistä valaisumallia kirkkaan ja iloisen vaikutelman luomiseksi. Jopa varjot jäävät heikoiksi.

Korkea suhde

  • Night scenes, there is no diffused lighting from the sky.
  • Horror films, dramatic or thrilling scenes, film noir.
  • Be careful thet the lighting doesn’t distract the viewer from the action.
  • Yökohtaukset, taivaalta tuleva heijastevalo puuttuu
  • Kauhuelokuvat, dramaattiset tai jännittävät kohtaukset, film noir
  • Varo, ettei valaisu vie kaikkea huomiota kohtauksesta.

Lighting concepts

15 Feb

Cinema 4d includes a default light every time you open a new scene. If illuminating a scene were the only function of lighting, there would never be a need to create or edit a light. Artistically, however. light can be used to invoke mood or drama, enhance modelling and spatial depth, paint the scene with colour, influence textures, focus attention, invent magic, and much more. Time spent studying different types f lights and their settings and investigating resources on photographic or theatrical lighting will pay big dividends in the look of your work.

Types of lights:

Omni

Omni light casts light rays evenly in all directions. Placing an omni light in the center of your scene will illuminate your scene evenly. Omni light acts like a real life light bulb.

Spot

Spotlight casts its rays in just one direction, which is along the z-axis by default. The spotlight light source can produce a round or a square cone of light. They can be easily moved and rotated to light individual objects and specific areas of a scene. Spotlight can be used for car headlights and torches amongst other things. They are also ideal for the simulation of a square picture to be cast onto a wall.

Infinite

The Infinite light type is so called because it mimics light that is cast from an infinite distance. Using a Infinite light would, for example, evenly illuminate the whole of a floor (provided the floor is flat). Since a Infinite light is infinite, the light has no actual origin. Thus the exact position of a Infinite light, near or far, has no effect on your scene’s objects. Only the actual direction in which the light is facing is important with this light source. Infinite light sources are suitable for simulating sunlight. The infinite light source itself cannot radiate visible light.

Area

The light rays from an Area light expand from all points on its surface outwards in all directions. A rectangular computer screen is a good example of such a light. The resultant lighting and specular effects are somewhat different from those of an Omni light; specular highlights are more angular and the surface illumination is richer. The closer the light source is to the object, the more apparent this becomes. An area light cannot be rendered as a visible light source.

Parallel

Parallel lights resemble a very distant light source. Unlike the Distant light source however, the Parallel light has an origin and simulates a large, single axis wall of light. By default, all Parallel lights will radiate light rays along the Z axis. These lights take the appearance of an infinitely large surface, radiating parallel light in a single direction; anything behind the point of origin will not be illuminated. Parallel lights cannot be rendered as a visible light. Parallel spotlights resemble the regular spotlight but do not have light cones to define falloff or distance. Instead, light rays are cast along cylinders and/or bars. The origin is important in defining which objects in a scene will be affected by this light. The radius of the spotlight can also be modified using the adjustment handles.

Any of these light sources can be created as a light with a target for easier positioning.

Types of shadow

Shadow Maps (Soft)

In reality all objects — whether they are trees growing in the wild, or a vase in a room — are lit by several partial light sources. The result of this is a gradual transition of light to shadow. This soft edge, or umbra, can be simulated in CINEMA 4D by using a shadow map. A shadow map is a grayscale picture of the scene as viewed from the light source. Contained in this are all the objects lit by the light source. During the render calculation the renderer will determine exactly which objects will fall into this shadow of the light source. The major advantage of this method is the high computing speed and the soft shadow’s natural appearance.
However, the one downside to soft shadows is the memory needed. Depending on the size of the shadow map, a great deal of additional memory may be needed. So be careful in your allocation of shadow maps or you may find your scenes wasting precious memory.By default, a standard size of 250×250 is used. Shadow map size can be increased substantially if needed. In order to keep your shadow sharp and smoothly defined, your shadow map will need to increase in size. If you simply need to keep your shadow edge soft, you can increase the Sample Radius. Again, this will increase render time.

Raytraced (Hard)

Traditionally in raytracers, genuinely raytraced scenes contained hard shadows. As this technique needed to compute many more additional rays, this method increases the render time dramatically. Hard shadows, because of their abrupt, sharp appearance, are of particular interest for technical illustrations. However, in other more natural pictures they look rather unrealistic because such hard, sharp shadow borders are rarely found in real world environments.

Area

Although Soft shadows are more natural than Hard shadows, they are still not perfectly natural. On careful examination you can see that the soft edge always has the same width. In nature this does not happen; the closer an object is to a surface on which it casts its shadows, the sharper this edge will be. Area shadows simulate this effect. Area shadow is the result of a virtual Area light source that simulates the overlay of several light sources. This provides the natural scattering of light. However, as usual, this method comes with a price: it adds to the render time. Carefully assigned Area shadows, however, can produce very realistic shadows.